Theory of Operation

The CSRNG block has been constructed to follow the NIST recommendation for a DRBG mechanism based on block ciphers. Specifically, it is a CTR_DRBG that uses an approved block cipher algorithm in counter mode. As such, the block diagram below makes reference to hardware blocks that either directly or closely follow NIST descriptions for the equivalent functions.

There are two major hardware interfaces: the application interface and the entropy request interface. The application interface, which is described in more detail later, is provided for an application to manage an instance in CSRNG. Once setup, the application interface user can request for entropy bits to be generated, as well as other functions. The application interface supports up to 15 hardware interfaces, and one software interface.

A walk through of how CSRNG generates entropy bits begins with the application interface. An instantiate command is issued from one of the application interfaces. This request moves into the cmd_stage block. Here the request is arbitrated between all of the cmd_stage blocks. The winner will get its command moved into the command dispatch logic. A common state machine will process all application interface commands in order of arbitration. At this point, some seed entropy may be required depending on the command and any flags. If needed, a request to the entropy source hardware interface will be made. This step can take milliseconds if seed entropy is not immediately available. Once all of the prerequisites have been collected, a CTR_DRBG command can be launched. This command will go into the ctr_drbg_cmd block. This ctr_drbg_cmd block uses two NIST-defined functions, the update and the block_encrypt functions. If the command is a generate, the ctr_drbg_cmd block will process the first half of the algorithm, and then pass it on to the ctr_drbg_gen block. Additionally, the ctr_drbg_gen block also uses the update block and the block_encrypt block. To keep resources to a minimum, both of these blocks have arbiters to allow sharing between the ctr_drbg_cmd and ctr_drbg_gen blocks. The command field called ccmd (for current command) is sent along the pipeline to not only identify the command, but is also reused as a routing tag for the arbiters to use when returning the block response.

Once the command has traversed through all of the CTR_DRBG blocks, the result will eventually land into the state_db block. This block will hold the instance state for each application interface. The specific state information held in the instance is documented below. If the command was a generate command, the genbits data word will be returned to the requesting cmd_stage block. Finally, an ack response and status will be returned to the application interface once the command has been completely processed.

Block Diagram

CSRNG Block Diagram

Design Details

Non-blocking Commands

Regarding command processing, all commands process immediately except for the generate command. The command generate length count (glen) is kept in the cmd_stage block. When the state_db block issues an ack to the cmd_stage block, the cmd_stage block increments an internal counter. This process repeats until the glen field value has been matched. Because each request is pipelined, requests from other cmd_stage blocks can be processed before the original generate command is completely done. This provides some interleaving of commands since a generate command can be programmed to take a very long time.

When sending an unsupported or illegal command, CMD_STAGE_INVALID_ACMD_ALERT will be triggered. Furthermore, CSRNG will respond with the appropriate error status response on the relevant interface.

Working State Values

The CSRNG working state data base (state_db) contains the current working state for a given DRBG instance. It holds the following values:

Values stored by state_db
Bits Name Description
31:0 Reseed Counter Value required and defined by NIST's SP 800-90A to be held in the state instance. It keeps track of the number of pseudorandom bits requested since the last instantiation or reseeding.
159:32 V Value required and defined by NIST's SP 800-90A to be held in the state instance, and is of size BlkLen. This value changes every time a BlkLen bits of output are generated.
415:160 Key Value required and defined by NIST's SP 800-90A to be held in the state instance, and is of size KeyLen. The key is changed after a predetermined number of blocks of output have been produced.
416 Status Set when instantiated.
417 Compliance Set when FIPS/CC compliant entropy was used to seed this instance.

AES Cipher

The block_encrypt block is where the aes_cipher_core block is located. This is the same block used in the AES design. Parameters are selected such that this is the unmasked version.

Software Support

The software application interface uses a set of TL-UL registers to send commands and receive generated bits. Since the registers are 32-bit words wide, some sequencing will need to be done by firmware to make this interface work properly.

Application Interface

This section describes the application interface, which is required for performing any operations using a CSRNG instance (i.e. instantiation, reseeding, RNG generation, or uninstantiation). Each CSRNG instance corresponds to a unique application interface port, which implements the application interface described here. Any hardware peripherals which require complete control of an instance may connect directly to a dedicated interface port. Meanwhile peripherals without any special requirements (i.e. personalization strings or non-FIPS-approved, fully-deterministic number sequences) may share access to an instance via the entropy distribution network (EDN) IP. The EDNs manage the instantiation and reseeding of CSRNG instances for general use-cases, providing either on-demand or timed-delivery entropy streams to hardware peripherals. Firmware applications can obtain access to random bit sequences directly through application interface port 0, which is directly mapped to a set of TL-UL registers.

The total number of application interface ports (for TL-UL, directly attached peripherals or EDN instances) is determined by the NHwApp parameter.

The command bus operates like a FIFO, in which a command is pushed into the interface. An optional stream of additional data may follow, such as seed material for an instantiate application command. For the generate application command, the obfuscated entropy will be returned on the genbits bus. This bus also operates like a FIFO, and the receiving module can provide back pressure to the genbits bus. There is one instance of a firmware application interface, and it uses the TL-UL registers. For more details on how the application interface works, see the Theory of Operations section above.

In general, users of the application interface are either firmware or some hardware module entity. For hardware, a module can either directly control the application interface, or it can connect to an EDN module. Attaching to an EDN module allows for a simpler interface connection to a more layout-friendly distributed-chip network.

General Command Format

The general format for the application interface is a 32-bit command header, optionally followed by additional data, such as a personalization string, typically twelve 32-bit words in length. Depending on the command, these strings are typically required to be 384-bits in length, to match the size of the seed-length when operating with 256-bit security-strength. The exact function of the additional data field depends in the command. However, in general, the additional data can be any length as specified by the command length field. The command header is defined below.

Command Header

The application interface requires that a 32-bit command header be provided to instruct the CSRNG how to manage the internal working states. Below is a description of the fields of this header:

Application Interface Command Header
Bits Name Description
3:0 acmd Application Command: Selects one of five operations to perform. The commands supported are instantiate, reseed, generate, update, and uninstantiate. Each application interface port used by peripheral hardware commands a unique instance number in CSRNG.
7:4 clen Command Length: Number of 32-bit words that can optionally be appended to the command. A value of zero will only transfer the command header. A value of 4'hc will transfer the header plus an additional twelve 32-bit words of data.
11:8 flag0 Command Flag0: flag0 is associated with current command. Setting this field to kMultiBitBool4True will enable flag0 to be enabled. Note that flag0 is used for the instantiate and reseed commands only, for all other commands its value is ignored.
23:12 glen Generate Length: Only defined for the generate command, this field is the total number of cryptographic entropy blocks requested. Each unit represents 128 bits of entropy returned. This field allows values between 1 and 4095. A value of 1 returns 1 * 128 bits of entropy. A value of 4095 returns 4095 * 128 bits of entropy, which is less than the 219 bits allowed by NIST (referenced to as max_number_of_bit_per_request).
31:24 resv Unused and reserved.

Command Description

The command field of the application command header is described in detail in the table below. The actions performed by each command, as well as which flags are supported, are described in this table.

Application Interface Command Description
Command Name Encoded Value Description
Instantiate 0x1 Initializes an instance in CSRNG. When seeding, the following table describes how the seed is determined based on flag0 and the clen field. Note that the last table entry (flag0 is set and clen is set to non-zero) is intended for known answer testing (KAT). WARNING: Though flag0 may be useful for generating fully-deterministic bit sequences, the use of this flag will render the instance non-FIPS compliant until it is re-instantiated. When the Instantiate command is completed, the active bit in the CSRNG working state will be set.
00Only entropy source seed is used.
01-12Entropy source seed is xor'ed with provided additional data.
10Seed of zero is used (no entropy source seed used).
11-12Only provided additional data will be used as seed.
Reseed 0x2 Reseeds an existing instance in CSRNG. The flag0 and clen table in the Instance command description above also applies to the Reseed command. Note that the last table entry (flag0 is set and clen is set to non-zero) is intended for known answer testing (KAT). The Reseed command only takes in one group (a maximum of twelve 32 bit words) of generic additional data. If both a seed and additional data must be provided to the Reseed command, the seed and additional data must be xor'ed first. This scenario will then pass the NIST vector test requiring both a provided seed and additional data.
Generate 0x3 Starts a request to CSRNG to generate cryptographic entropy bits. The glen field defines how many 128-bit words are to be returned to the application interface. The glen field needs to be a minimum value of one. The NIST reference to the prediction_resistance_flag is not directly supported as a flag. It is the responsibility of the calling application to reseed as needed before the Generate command to properly support prediction resistance. Note that additional data is also supported when the clen field is set to non-zero.
Update 0x4 Updates an existing instance in CSRNG. This command does the same function as the Reseed command, except that:
  1. only the additional data provided will be used in the update function (i.e. no physical entropy is gathered), and
  2. the Update command does not reset the reseed counter.
When the Update command is completed, the results will be reflected in the CSRNG working state.
Uninstantiate 0x5 Resets an instance in CSRNG. Values in the instance are zeroed out. When the Uninstantiate command is completed, the Status bit in the CSRNG working state will be cleared. Uninstantiating an instance effectively resets it, clearing any errors that it may have encountered due to bad command syntax or entropy source failures. Only a value of zero should be used for clen, since any additional data will be ignored.
Reserved 0x0,0x6-0xf Unused and reserved.

Command Response

Once a command has been completed, successfully or unsuccessfully, the CSRNG responds with a single cycle pulse on the csrng_rsp_ack signal associated with the same application interface port. If the command is successful, the csrng_rsp_sts signal will indicate the value 0 (CSRNG_OK) in the same cycle. Otherwise the application will receive the value 1 (CSRNG_ERROR) on the csrng_rsp_sts signal. A number of exception cases to be considered are enumerated in NIST SP 800-90A, and may include events such as:

  • Failure of the entropy source
  • Attempts to use an instance which has not been properly instantiated, or
  • Attempts to generate data when an instance has exceeded its maximum seed life. In such cases, a 32-bit exception message will be propagated to firmware via the hw_exc_sts register, and a cs_hw_inst_exc interrupt will be raised.

Generated Bits (genbits) Interface

In addition to the command response signals there is a bus for returning the generated bits. This 129-bit bus consists of 128-bits, genbits_bus, for the random bit sequence itself, along with a single bit flag, genbits_fips, indicating whether the bits were considered fully in accordance with FIPS standards.

There are two cases when the sequence will not be FIPS compliant:

  • Early in the boot sequence, the ENTROPY_SRC generates a seed from the first 384 bits pulled from the noise source. This initial seed is tested to ensure some minimum quality for obfuscation use- cases, but this boot seed is not expected to be full-entropy nor do these health checks meet the 1024-bit requirement for start-up health checks required by NIST 800-90B.
  • If flag0 is asserted during instantiation, the resulting DRBG instance will have a fully-deterministic seed, determined only by user input data. Such a seed will be created only using factory-entropy and will lack the physical-entropy required by NIST SP 800-90A, and thus this DRBG instance will not be FIPS compliant.

Handshaking signals

The application command signal csrng_req_bus is accompanied by a csrng_valid_signal, which is asserted by the requester when the command is valid. CSRNG may stall incoming commands by de-asserting the csrng_req_ready signal. A command is considered received whenever both csrng_req_valid and csrng_req_ready are asserted in the same clock cycle.

Likewise a requester must only consider data on the genbits bus to be valid when the genbits_valid signal is asserted, and should assert genbits_ready whenever it is ready to accept the genbits data. The genbits data is considered successfully transmitted whenever genbits_valid and genbits_ready are asserted in the same clock cycle.

A requester must always be ready to receive csrng_req_sts signals. (There is no “ready” signal for command response messages sent to hardware.)


Application Interface: Instantiate Request
{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'             , wave: 'p...............|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_valid' , wave: '01............0.|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_ready' , wave: '1.............0.|..1..'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_bus'   , wave: 'x5333333333333x.|.....',data: ['ins','sd1','sd2','sd3','sd4','sd5','sd6','sd7','sd8','sd9','sd10','sd11','sd12']},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_ack'   , wave: '0...............|.10..'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_sts'   , wave: 'x...............|.5x..', data: ['ok']},
Application Interface: Reseed Request
{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'             , wave: 'p...............|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_valid' , wave: '01............0.|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_ready' , wave: '1.............0.|..1..'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_bus'   , wave: 'x5333333333333x.|.....',data: ['res','ad1','ad2','ad3','ad4','ad5','ad6','ad7','ad8','ad9','ad10','ad11','ad12']},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_ack'   , wave: '0...............|.10..'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_sts'   , wave: 'x...............|.5x..', data: ['ok']},
Application Interface: Generate Request
{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'              , wave: 'p...|...|....|....|...'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_valid'  , wave: '010.|...|....|....|...'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_ready'  , wave: '1...|...|....|....|...'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_bus'    , wave: 'x5x.|...|....|....|...',data: ['gen']},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_ack'    , wave: '0...|...|....|....|.10'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_sts'    , wave: 'x...|...|....|....|.5x', data: ['ok']},
   {name: 'genbits_valid'    , wave: '0...|.10|.1.0|.10.|...'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_fips'   , wave: '0...|.10|.1.0|.10.|...'},
   {name: 'genbits_bus'      , wave: '0...|.40|.4.0|.40.|...', data: ['bits0','bits1','bits2']},
   {name: 'genbits_ready'    , wave: '1...|...|0.1.|........'},
Application Interface: Update Request
{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'             , wave: 'p...............|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_valid' , wave: '01............0.|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_ready' , wave: '1.............0.|..1..'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_bus'   , wave: 'x5333333333333x.|.....',data: ['upd','ad1','ad2','ad3','ad4','ad5','ad6','ad7','ad8','ad9','ad10','ad11','ad12']},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_ack'   , wave: '0...............|.10..'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_sts'   , wave: 'x...............|.5x..', data: ['ok']},
Application Interface: Uninstantiate Request
{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'             , wave: 'p...............|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_valid' , wave: '010.............|.....'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_ready' , wave: '1.0.............|..1..'},
   {name: 'csrng_req_bus'   , wave: 'x5x.............|.....',data: ['uni']},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_ack'   , wave: '0...............|.10..'},
   {name: 'csrng_rsp_sts'   , wave: 'x...............|.5x..', data: ['ok']},
Entropy Source Hardware Interface

The following waveform shows an example of how the entropy source hardware interface works.

{signal: [
   {name: 'clk'           , wave: 'p...|.........|.......'},
   {name: 'es_req'        , wave: '0..1|..01.0..1|.....0.'},
   {name: 'es_ack'        , wave: '0...|.10.10...|....10.'},
   {name: 'es_bus[383:0]' , wave: '0...|.30.30...|....30.', data: ['es0','es1','es2']},
   {name: 'es_fips'       , wave: '0...|....10...|....10.'},


The cs_cmd_req_done interrupt will assert when a CSRNG command has been completed.

The cs_entropy_req interrupt will assert when CSRNG requests entropy from ENTROPY_SRC.

The cs_hw_inst_exc interrupt will assert when any of the hardware-controlled CSRNG instances encounters an exception while executing a command, either due to errors on the command sequencing, or an exception within the ENTROPY_SRC IP.

The cs_fatal_err interrupt will assert when any of the CSRNG FIFOs has a malfunction. The conditions that cause this to happen are either when there is a push to a full FIFO or a pull from an empty FIFO.